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Water-Jel Burn Kits, Soft Sided
Water-Jel Burn Kits contain burn dressings, gauze and other materials packed in a soft-side heavy-duty carry case.
LMA MAD Nasal Intranasal Mucosal Atomization Device
The LMA MAD Nasal™ Intranasal Mucosal Atomization Device will deliver a mist of atomized medication that is absorbed directly into your patient's blood stream avoiding first-pass metabolism.
CAP 3 Controlled Access Pharmaceutical Dispenser
The CAP 3 is a customizable inventory management tool that helps address major supply room challenges. It holds and dispenses up to 384 items.
June 1, 2011
Bystander CPR: The biggest links in the chain of survival
The release of the American Heart Association 2010 Emergency Cardiac Care Guidelines marks the 50th anniversary of CPR. It is perhaps with some irony that some of the biggest changes in the resuscitation guidelines have occurred at the most basic level of care – public participation in managing sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). It may be that the greatest opportunity for EMS providers to improve patient survival from SCA is in the encouragement and support of the lay person to recognize cardiac arrest, activate the emergency response system, and perform effective chest compressions and defibrillation.
Scope of the problem
Professional resuscitation comes of age
This evolution is reflected in the 2010 Advanced Cardiac Life Support Guidelines; there have been relatively few changes in the recommended care provided by the advanced healthcare provider. The AHA has clearly organized its resuscitation guidelines around the delivery of high quality chest compressions to increase perfusion through the coronary arteries and the need to defibrillate early in cases of ventricular fibrillation. This makes sense – there is no reason to believe that the ALS "house" would stand if the BLS "foundation" is weak.
The effect of bystander participation
Where EMS plays a role
While providing certification courses in CPR, AED and First Aid is helpful, there are additional ways to increase public knowledge of CPR. The AHA has endorsed the concept of "hands only" CPR, where recognition of cardiac arrest, activation of the emergency response system, and high quality chest compressions are the key knowledge points.
A casebook example of public participation would be the San Francisco Paramedic Association sponsorship of "sidewalk CPR," which began two years ago. During National CPR & AED Awareness week, volunteer instructors coaxed and cajoled people passing by the SFPA’s building during rush hour, and encouraged them to spend less than 5 minutes practicing hands only CPR on manikins that were laid out on the sidewalk.
Music such as the Bee Gee’s "Staying Alive," "Quit Playing Games with my Heart" by the Back Street Boys, and "Rock It" by Master P provided a soundtrack that allowed participants to practice a rate of about 100 beats per minute. Over the course of two hours, more than 50 individuals stopped and practiced CPR. The cost was low, and the fun factor was high. Last year the event expanded to San Francisco City Hall, where more than one hundred individuals trained during a short period.
1. Lloyd-Jones D et al; American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee. Heart disease and stroke statistics–2010 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010;121:e46–e215.
2. Nichol G, Thomas E, Callaway CW, Hedges J, Powell JL, Aufderheide TP, Rea T, Lowe R, Brown T, Dreyer J, Davis D, Idris A, Stiell I. Regional variation in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidence and outcome. JAMA. 2008;300:1423–1431.
3. Field, et al. Part 1: Executive Summary: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation 2010;122;S640-S656.
4. Yoneomoto N. The Effect of Time to Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation on Survival From Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest From All-Japan Utstein Registry Data: A Validation of 3-Phase Sensitive Model. Circulation 2010;122:A260.
5. Bobrow B et al. Chest Compression–Only CPR by Lay Rescuers and Survival From Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. JAMA 2010;304(13):1447-1454.